What is a Printed Circuit Board Pad?
The Printed Circuit Board Pad is a small metallised area (usually copper) to which electronic components are connected or attached.
You can think of a pad as a piece of copper where the pins of the component are mechanically supported and soldered. There are 2 types of pads; thru-hole and smd (surface mount).
Thru-hole pads are intended for introducing the pins of the components, so they can be soldered from the opposite side from which the component was inserted. These types of pads are very similar to a thru-hole via.
The smd pads are intended for surface mount devices, or in other words, for soldering the component on the same surface where it was placed.